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C-507/19: CJEU interprets Article 12(1)(a) QD as referring to ‘effective access to territory’


On 13 January 2021, the CJEU ruled, in case C-507/19 Bundesrepublik Deutschland v XT, on the interpretation of Article 12 of the Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95).

C-441/19: CJEU delivers judgment concerning return decisions and the investigation into adequate reception facilities for unaccompanied minors in the State of return


On 14 January 2021, the CJEU published its judgment in TQ v Staatssecretaris van Justitie en Veiligheid (State Secretary for Justice and Security) (C-441/19) concerning the interpretation of, inter alia, Article 6(1) and Article 8(1) of the Return Directive (

Communicated cases against Greece (application no. 19614/20) and the Netherlands (application no. 64534/19)

  • A.B v Greece (application no. 19614/20) concerns the living conditions of a pregnant woman in the Pyli hotspot on the island of Kos.

About EDAL

The European Database of Asylum Law (EDAL) is an online database managed by the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) and a compilation of summaries of refugee and asylum case law from the courts of 22 European states, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). The summaries are published in English and in the relevant state’s national language.

For more information please see here.

If you are interested in contributing an article on a relevant subject to the EDAL blog or would like to inform us about an important national judgment, please kindly send an email to Stavros Papageorgopoulos (