The content of this site is the property of the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (excluding external links and attachments). The European Database of Asylum Law by the European Council on Refugees and Exiles is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The terms of that agreement however should not be interpreted as precluding in any way the use of the database as a reference tool by legal practitioners working for remuneration.


The European Database of Asylum Law (EDAL) is a free service created with a view to strengthening the development of a Common European Asylum Policy. EDAL has made every effort to provide a high quality service in order to meet this objective.

However, the content of this site is for information purposes only and EDAL, and its supporters (the European Commission, the Irish Refugee Council, the European Council on Refugees and Exiles and the others), do not invite reliance upon its use nor accept responsibility, give a guarantee, undertaking or warranty for its accuracy. The summary is precisely that and users seeking to rely on a case, should refer to the actual judgment. Furthermore, the content does not constitute advice of any nature and should not be used as such.

The content of the website has been updated with the financial support of the Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme of the European Union and other donors. The views expressed within cannot in any circumstances be regarded as the official position or reflect the views of the European Commission