Applying the Dublin Regulation to the family reunification of unaccompanied children in the absence of official asylum claims

Friday, August 11, 2017

1.      Introduction

In recent years, thousands of children in need of international protection have traversed the Mediterranean and entered Europe unauthorised and unaccompanied by a parent or responsible adult. Many enter in the hope of reuniting with family members already residing in Europe, seeking both family reunification and international protection under the...

Hotspots under a spotlight: the legality of the hotspot approach in Italy

Monday, June 26, 2017


Constituting an iconic flagship of the European Agenda on Migration, Hotspots are the tool designed by the European Commission to prevent the “inflow” of migrants who arrive to Italy and Greece. 

According to ...

Ending impunity for the violation of migrant worker’s rights: Chowdury v Greece

Monday, May 15, 2017

On 30 March 2017, the European Court of Human Rights handed down a judgment that condemned Greece for non-compliance with its positive obligations stemming from Article 4(2) of the European Convention of Human Rights - no-one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour. The Chamber judgment in Chowdury v Greece examines the forced labour of Bangladeshi migrant workers, who were working in the strawberry fields of Manolada.


The End of the Right to Asylum in Hungary?

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

1. Introduction

On 28th March 2017, the Hungarian Act “On the amendment of certain acts related to increasing the strictness of procedures carried out in the areas of border management” entered into force, amending five pieces of domestic legislation: the Act on Asylum, the Act on the Admission and Right of Residence of Third-Country Nationals, the Act on State Border, the Act on Minor Offences and the Act on Child Protection and Guardianship Management. The newly past law requires that all asylum-seekers must submit their application in the transit zones...

Equality of arms? Use of classified information in return cases in Poland

Wednesday, April 26, 2017


Return decisions should generally include factually based information on why the decision is being issued. However, under the Return Directive justification of the decision can be limited for reasons of national security (Article 12(1) second sentence). The information contained in such a decision is often provided by the intelligence services of the state and therefore protected by the law. The problem arises when factually based information is not...

The ECtHR Ruling in Ilias and Ahmed: ‘safe third country’ concept put to the test

Thursday, April 13, 2017

On 14 March 2017 the Fourth Section of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) delivered its judgement in the case of Ilias and Ahmed v. Hungary concerning two asylum seekers of Bangladeshi nationality who were detained at the border zone in Hungary and then subject to removal to Serbia. Although the judgement is not final yet (as Hungary could...

The Emergence of the Entry Human Rights Principle. Looking Beyond the X.X. Case

Thursday, April 6, 2017

1. Introduction 

On 7 March, the CJEU in the X.X. case decided that Member States were not obliged under Article 25(1)(a) of Regulation (EC) No 810/2009 (CCV) to issue a short-term visa for humanitarian purposes as the applicants planned to stay for...

Looking like a cat, walking like a cat, sounding like a cat but actually being a dog: What the X and X judgment means for the scope of the EU Charter?

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

An easy way out: the Court’s judgment in X and X

Saying that the X and X judgment was awaited with bated breath is an understatement. The referral of X and X’s case gave a window of opportunity to the Grand Chamber of the Court of Justice of the European Union (‘CJEU’) to rule on whether EU law obliges States to provide a limited territorial visa (‘LTV’) on humanitarian grounds for those who risk treatment contrary to the...

The detention of asylum seeking children in Hungary: Dire tendencies in upholding the basic rights of children

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Since 2015, the term ‘refugee crisis’ has been widely used to describe the phenomenon of a relatively large number of people seeking protection in the EU. When observing the worrying human rights violations and the detention of asylum seekers, especially children in Hungary, one might ask, however: is it not the rule of law which is in crisis?

This blog will examine the legal framework of the detention of asylum seeking children and the procedural flaws the Hungarian asylum system is struggling with. It will discuss whether the current system is in line with the relevant...

What more can be done? – lost hope in improving judicial review of asylum detention in Hungary

Wednesday, March 1, 2017


In Hungary judicial review of the administrative decision imposing detention on an asylum seeker is conducted by first instance local criminal courts. First the court performs the review within 72h after detention was ordered by the Immigration and Asylum Office (IAO). The court undertakes further reviews every 60 days. The court hearing is mandatory only at the first judicial review. Asylum seekers have a right to an ex officio appointed lawyer. Today, more asylum seekers are held in asylum detention than in open reception centres (a practice which was...